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Women in science

 

It is known that successful women scientists are substantially less than men. Sociologists are scratching about spears. But we’ll leave them out of the equation. Will talk about successful women.

 

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The monument Larissa popugaeva in a Good, Yakutia

 

 

the Briton Cecilia Payne (1900-1979) graduated from Cambridge, where he studied physics, but degree not received — one of the largest world research centers began to award them to women only in 1948. 19-year-old Payne was so inspired by a lecture by astronomer Arthur Eddington about his observations of a solar Eclipse that she decided to become an astronomer. But chances to achieve anything in the homeland she had not seen and in 1923 moved to the United States, where he enrolled in Harvard.

An American researcher of stars, Cecilia Payne-Gaposhkin Cecilia Payne was the first person in the history of Harvard, received a PhD in astronomy — scientific supervisor of the girls just couldn’t convince the head of the Department of physics to award her a degree in this field. In his dissertation Payne first showed, how are the spectral classes of stars and their temperatures, and also made the revolutionary for that time, the assumption that the stars consist mostly of hydrogen and its chemical composition is not similar to much of the planet. This seemed all so improbable that senior colleagues persuaded Payne to write in conclusion that the results are “almost certainly not

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Snyder and Perth, who as a child considered himself a “man, created to English literature”, not neurochemistry, some time together continued revolutionary research. However, in 1978 Lasarevsky award, the “American Nobel” for the discovery of these receptors, and “natural drugs”, endorphins, only her supervisor and two other scientists, the British John Hughes and Hans Kosterlitz. Angry Perth told the media that she was ignored because she is a woman. The decision of the prize Committee are so deeply insulted that result in Perth, according to some versions, even prevented the awarding of colleagues the Nobel prize.

However, his glory-it’s Showtime has made the author more than 250 scientific papers and of the famous book “Molecules of emotions”, she is now in a private company is developing a vaccine against HIV.

 

Caroline Herschel

 

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© Photo: public domain

The Astronomer Caroline Herschel

The great astronomer William Herschel, discoverer of Uranus and at the same time the composer who wrote 24 symphonies, known to many in the end, the space telescope “Herschel” is often a guest of the sections of the scientific news. However, not everyone knows that actually the unit is named after this scientific “family contract” — rest of your life with William worked with his younger sister Caroline, the first woman in the history of astronomy, who discovered the comet.

Write that Caroline Herschel (1750-1848) in 10 years became ill with typhus and remained small in stature — so the family are desperate to marry her and decided that Caroline will serve on the house. Instead, in 1772, a girl from his native Hanover went to her brother in the UK, and for the next half-century astronomy to both has evolved from the curious hobby in life. It is interesting that the first Caroline was engaged in technical work with telescopes and astronomical catalogues, but then the brother insisted that she also began to observe. These observations eventually led her to a gold medal and honorary membership of the Royal astronomical society.

The universe is the “eyes” of the telescope “Herschel” and the Observatory “Planck”>>

Obituary of Caroline Herschel, published in the issue of Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society from 1848, says: “her Memory will live together with the memory of his brother, are stored as long as astronomical records of the last and present century — and to live it would be deserved, although, I dare to hope that one day the time will come, when the glory of women in astronomy will not be considered exotic only because it’s a woman”.

Mary Somerville

 

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Mathematician and astronomer Mary Somerville

Young Mary Somerville (1780-1872) once overheard a math lesson to his brother and answered the question he was able to overpower. So, apparently, began the academic career of the Scottish mathematician and science popularizer, the second in British history woman-scientist, recognized (after Caroline Herschel).

Somerville became known not only their own mathematical work but also very high quality translations, in particular, the translation of the famous treatise of Laplace “On celestial mechanics”. One of the publications Somerville is believed to have suggested the possible existence for Uranium is not known at the time, the planet John Adams, who eventually, along with Urbain the Verrier and Johann Galle, is considered the “father” of Neptune.

Mary Somerville, probably without even knowing it, played a big role in the history of science: in early June, 1833, it is believed to have introduced with my colleague Charles Babbage’s 18-year-old student — Ada Lovelace.

Natalia and Larissa Sarsadskih Popugaeva

 

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© Photo: Kuzia

Geologist Natalia Sarsadskih

The names of Soviet geologists Natalia Nikolaevna, Sarsadskih and Larissa anatolevny popugaeva well known in Yakutia, because it is the duty of the region one of their main today’s wealth — diamonds. Colleagues and friends, and Sarsadskih Popugaeva in 1950-ies, in fact, radically changed the situation in the global diamond industry by proposing and examining in practice the method of search of kimberlite pipes — a giant formations in the earth’s crust, filled with kimberlite, the rock that contains diamonds.

Unique diamonds and diamond>>

Natalia Sarsadskih (97) suggested that when searching for a diamonds to focus on is often accompanied by the mineral pyrope, for which the method is called “pyrope shooting”. In the summer of 1954 sarsadskikh offered to go to test his ideas in the field in Yakutia, however, the geologist recently became a mother and chose to be a colleague, Larissa Popugaeva (1923-1977). In the end it Popugaeva with his only companion Fyodor Belikov August 21, 1954 found the USSR’s first kimberlite pipe “Zarnitsa”.

The fate of fellow geologists proved difficult. Immediately after returning from the expedition Larissa Popugaeva, find themselves effectively “locked” in the Yakut village, threats and insults made “retroactively” to change the place of work, for which her colleagues in Leningrad, including Sarsadskih, accused her of dishonesty. Neither Sarsadskih nor Popugaeva not included in the list of Lenin prize in 1957, awarded “for the discovery of commercial diamond deposits”, and deserved recognition found them only later.

Hedy Lamarr

 

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American film actress and inventor Hedy Lamarr

Hedy Lamarr (1913-2000) is a good example of how unexpected may be the fate of talented women. Hedwig Eva Maria keeslar began her career as an actress in Europe with the film “Ecstasy” in 1933, where not only posed naked, but also pretended to orgasm on camera — that is a absolutely incredible liberties. In Paris she met with one of the founders of the film company MGM Louis Mayer who hired her and was persuaded to use a pseudonym.

In the U.S., Lamarr continued his star trek, starring in almost 20 films alone MGM. However, “the most beautiful woman of Europe” was also mathematically gifted: along with her neighbor, composer George Antala, Lamarr invented a communication system with so-called “jumping frequencies”, it is better protected from interception or signal distortion. Lamarr and Antheil received a patent for their “secret communication system” in 1942.

Itself Lamarr hoped that its invention will give US an advantage in the war, making the detection of radio-controlled torpedoes. 29-year-old woman wanted to join the National inventors Council, but allegedly received in reply a polite smile and an offer to benefit their new homeland, advertising bonds military loan. Today the invention Lamarr and Antalya serves as the basis for technologies that are widely used in mobile telephony, Wi-Fi, GPS, and homeland Hedy, Austria, along with Germany and Switzerland is celebrating national inventors Day 9 November — on her birthday.

 

   Jocelyn Bell

The first pulsar was discovered in June 1967 Jocelyn bell, a graduate student Anthony Hewish, the Meridian radio telescope Mellanskog radio astronomy Observatory of the University of Cambridge at a wavelength of 3.5 m (85,7 MHz). For this outstanding result, Hewish received in 1974 the Nobel prize. Jocelyn bell was undeserved forgotten.

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The PC was Jocelyn bell. While working on the radio telescope she analyzed 50 kilometres of paper tape and the eye has learned to distinguish between signals of quasars and interference from terrestrial radio and devices.

In the summer of 1967 bell found in the records of the recorder of the “comb” is regular spades, not like the usual signals that are detected by radio telescope. Jocelyn did not hurry with the message the Professor Huishu about a mysterious pulsating signal. He then disappeared, then appeared, but when he was, the peaks of radio emission were uniformly, at intervals of 1.33 seconds between peaks. Soon Jocelyn had established a relationship of periodic signals with a specific area of the sky, then reported the discovery of a pulsating source Anthony Hueso.

Read more: https://www.nkj.ru/archive/articles/24742/ (Science and life, a fairy Tale about a young Jocelyn bell, pulsars, and a telegram from little green men)

http://ria.ru/science/20130306/926056797.html

Dear Women! Sisters, mothers. daughter. grandmother and everything.

Congratulations on a wonderful Day-March 8! And not to say misogynistic, you occupy a very important place in science.

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