Despite the active study of the development, space is still full of mysteries for mankind. Only recently, gravitational waves was considered only in theory, but today their existence has been proved scientifically. Who knows what secrets are fraught with these dark dark depths of the Universe. However, even among what had already been discovered by scientists full of extremely amazing things, whose existence is hard to believe.
This discovery was recently made an international group of scientists working on the 30-meter telescope in the Sierra Nevada in southern Iberian Peninsula. They found that the composition of the comet Lovejoy, code-named C/2011 W3 are as many as 20 different types of organic molecules, including molecules of sugar and alcohol.
This periodic comet was discovered in November 2011. By all indications its diameter should be at least 500 meters. In addition, it is one of the most striking of all known comets. While it is not clear where in the dust tail of comet Lovejoy took all the organic matter. It is possible that they were “picked up” somewhere during the journey of the comet through space. Another version says that these compounds could arise from a huge interstellar molecular cloud that formed the Solar system.
The planet of diamonds
The exoplanet with a complicated name PSR J1719–1438 b, discovered in 2009. It is located in the constellation Serpens at a distance of 3900 light-years from our Solar system. But it is noteworthy in this planet that by all calculations, it is comprised almost entirely of crystalline carbon.
PSR J1719−1438 b was one of the first of its kind, but not the only. To date, scientists know of at least five such carbon planets. It is assumed that they also have iron-containing core, but the basis of their surface are mainly composed of the carbides of silicon and titanium and pure carbon. According to scientists, the planets may be present the area covered by kilometers of diamonds.
A huge rain cloud
And here, without any metaphors — it really is a big accumulation of moisture, which conditionally could be called a cloud. This cloud is at a distance of 10 billion light years away and it is assumed that it envelops a supermassive black hole. And when anything in the cosmos use the term “huge” or “giant”, it should be understood in completely different scales. No, this cloud is not the size of the continent of Eurasia, for example. It’s huge so that about 100 000 times bigger than the Sun.
A glowing ball, which with the help of fusion reaction produces vast amounts of energy, light and heat. In any case, such a star is our own Sun. But the truth is that some stars can have absolutely unusual conditions for them.
Such stars, for example, are brown dwarfs. This, if I may say so, a dying star, which almost completely depleted the stock of cores. Fusion reactions still going, but not with such activity and with such a strong heat. For example, a star, WISE 1828+2650. It is the coolest known brown dwarfs. Its surface temperature is only 25 degrees Celsius. Quite comfortable to walk around in shorts and a t-shirt.
Possible ocean life
Titan is the largest moon of Saturn, is the most likely candidate for the discovery of a whole ocean of extraterrestrial life. At least that’s what scientists from NASA. Conditions on the surface and in the atmosphere of this satellite is extremely harsh. The average temperature is minus 170-180 degrees Celsius. In some places the flow methane-ethane rivers and even lakes. And most of the surface consists of water ice.
However, researchers ‘ conclusions Titanium is very often mapped to our native Land at early stages of its development. It is not excluded that the satellite is possible the existence of the simplest forms of life, in particular, in underground reservoirs, where conditions can be much more comfortable than on the surface.
Modern science is already well known that lightning is not only an earthly phenomenon. Registered electrical discharges in the atmospheres of Venus, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and other planets. But few people know that the strongest lightning not happen on planets around black holes.
The most relativistic jet or jets that escape from the centres of quasars, black holes and radio galaxies, in fact can also be considered lightning. Very powerful, huge. Their nature is still very poorly understood. Scientists believe that such discharges are formed due to the interaction of magnetic fields with an accretion disk around a black hole or neutron star.
If somewhere and there is a real hell, then it definitely needs to be planet CoRoT-7 b. It revolves around the star COROT-7 in the constellation of the Unicorn, which is approximately 489 light years from us. The problem of the planet that it is located too close to its star and always turned to her one side only.
Because of such conditions, on the illuminated side of the planet formed a huge ocean of molten lava. Its temperature is +2500-2600 degrees Celsius, which is above the melting temperature of most known minerals. So on the “warm” side of the planet melted almost everything. Moreover, the whole atmosphere of CoRoT-7 b mainly consists of this vaporized rock, which then falls on the colder areas in the form of stone rain. It is expected that once this planet was a gas giant the size of Saturn, but the star is literally “boiled away” her to the core. Now she’s only one and a half times bigger than Earth.
Our Sun makes a revolution around its axis in about 25 days, gradually deforming a magnetic field around itself. Now imagine a dying star in its death throes collapses and shrinks into a tiny lump of matter. Huge, gigantic star, sometimes more than the size of the Sun, turns into a ball with a diameter of only several tens of kilometers. All this time it rotates faster and faster. Like a spinning ballerina, which presses and throwing hands, this star spins up just as well with its magnetic field.
According to calculations of scientists, sometimes the magnetic field of the Magnetar can be a million times stronger than earth’s. For comparison, the magnetic field of such strength could damage your phone at a distance of hundreds of thousands of kilometers. Seemingly, what’s so scary, just keep away from magnetars your electronic devices. But this magnetic field is so strong that it can affect matter itself, twisting the atoms in thin cylinders.
From a school bench all know that there are stars around which planets revolve around which, in turn, can rotate their satellites. However, all rules have exceptions. Imagine that cold in the vast cosmos there are planets that are not bound by gravity either to the stars or to other planets. They are commonly called planets or orphan planets-the Wanderers.
Interestingly, if the planet is an orphan is in the galaxy, it is, even without being tied to the stars, still revolves around the galactic core. Of course, the period of treatment in such cases is very high. But it may be that the planet is completely empty intergalactic space and then it would not orbit around anything.
Generally the entire cosmos and the entire universe imagine one big time machine, in which even the distance for clarity, is measured in years, of light, of course. However, given that the size of our galaxy about 100,000 light-years, any event that happens on one edge, will be visible to each other only after 100,000 years.
But this does not mean that the speed of propagation of information in the Universe is limited only by the speed of light. If you look at the cosmos in the infrared, we can see that for us hasn’t happened yet. A simple example: the famous “Pillars of creation” region of the eagle Nebula. According to the Spitzer infrared telescope, the “Pillars of Creation” been destroyed by a supernova explosion about 6,000 years ago. But since the nebula is located at a distance of 7,000 light years from Earth, we will still see it about a thousand years, although they themselves are long gone.