In 1941, Japan had developed the plan, “Kanokwan” involving attack on the Soviet Union on terms consistent with the German plan “Barbarossa”. It was assumed that 10 August 1941, after the capture of Moscow by the Germans, Japan would declare war on the Soviet Union and rapidly defeating the red army by October occupied the Soviet far East and Siberia.
Under this plan, among other things, was deployed training on the use of biological weapons against the red army and the civilian population of the Soviet territories. Were doing a special division of the Kwantung army “unit 731” and “detachment 100”.
Subsequently, the plan “Kanokwan” remained unfulfilled, since the German blitzkrieg failed. However, the development of biological weapons (BW) in Japan continued.
The cheapest and effective weapon
First Biolabs, emerged in 1931 as part of the Kwantung army, received an encrypted name “squad Addition”. Its leader was a microbiologist Shiro Ishii, who considered BO the cheapest and most effective weapon of mass destruction. Later, in 1936, in Manchuria were deployed to two classified military-biological complex — “unit 731” (it was headed by the same Shiro Ishii) and “order № 100”. For the first of them to Pinfan, 20 km from Harbin, built the military camp area of about 25 square km, surrounded by a fence topped with barbed wire. The town was built airfield, living quarters, power station, railway, training centre, prison, multiple laboratories, etc. the Staff was around 3,000 employees.
Shiro Ishii, the head of “unit 731”
Despite the high secrecy of deployed operations, a unit made in the field of view of the Soviet military intelligence, since, as the Japanese began to lay a new road from Harbin to the village Pingan.
The conveyor for the production of “living death”
Structural “unit 731” was divided into several departments, which kept all kinds of jobs: search and cultivation of deadly bacteria, testing their effects on the body of living people, the design of shells and special nozzles with which the agents of acute infectious diseases had to get to the enemy side, the growing rodent fleas infected with the plague (the presence of 4,500 incubators for mice was allowed in the shortest possible time to raise tens of millions of plague-infected fleas). One of the departments was a sort of “factory of bacteria” — there has been growth of pathogens; production capacity of the division were given the opportunity to grow to 300 kg (!) bacteria plague in a month. The squad had and planes, equipped with special equipment.
120 km from Pentane, in the area of Anda station was equipped polygon for experiments on humans “in the field”. Bacteriologist nisi of Toshihide involved in training for the conduct of bacteriological war, in 1949, in the course of the Khabarovsk process (more about it will be discussed below) gave the following testimony:
“In January 1945 was produced… experience in infection 10 Chinese war prisoners with gas gangrene. The aim of the experience was to clarify the possibility of infection through frost 20°C. the Chinese have been attached to dug into the ground poles at a distance of 10-20 meters from the bomb shrapnel action, infected with gas gangrene. So people were not immediately killed, their heads and back covered with shields and cotton blankets, and his legs and buttocks were left unprotected. After switching on the current the bomb exploded the shrapnel with the bacteria. As a result, all subjects were injured and after 7 days he died in severe agony”.
As for the “order № 100”, the bulk of its base was in the town of Megaton, near the city of Changchun. There were about 800 employees. The main task of the unit was to manufacture huge quantities of the virus glanders, anthrax, etc. During the Khabarovsk process one of the defendants Takaezu Takahashi (the chemist, the biologist, the General-the Lieutenant of veterinary service) reported that the detachment was able to annually produce 1,000 kg of anthrax, 500 kg of glanders bacteria, 100 kg of red rust bacteria. According to him, if in the course of the war with the USSR, the Japanese army had to retreat, then all the rivers, ponds and wells on the subject site should be infected with bacteria or poisons, crops destroyed, and livestock destroyed.
Savage experiments on “logs”
In both groups for several years experiments were conducted by infecting people with the plague bacteria, cholera, typhus, anthrax, gas gangrene. Designed for inhuman experiments, the people were brought into the squad and was thrown in prison; “catching” of the victims was carried out by the Japanese gendarmerie and the intelligence services of the Kwangtung army. In daily use for “experimental” entrenched derogatory and cynical title “Maruta” (“logs”). Employees of the detachment have not seen in the victims of human beings, they treated them as mindless inanimate objects that have absolutely no value.
Among the prisoners were Chinese, Mongols, Koreans, Russians. Most of the people, which was conducted savage experiments, died in incredible agony. Those who were lucky to survive, were subjected to repeated experiments, and ultimately, too, were sacrificed. Major General Kiyoshi Kawashima, the former chief of one of departments of “unit 731”, and later, giving testimony in Khabarovsk, said that from infection acute infections in prison “were dying every year at least 600 people”.
In addition to these infections, the group set and the other experiments, which determined how long a person can live in conditions of starvation, dehydration, frostbite, under the influence of boiling water, electrocution, vivisection (surgery on living humans without anesthesia); practiced forced abortion, induced strokes, heart attacks, etc. the Japanese writer Morimura Seiichi, who in the postwar years, with former members of detachment and wrote a book about him “the devil’s Kitchen”, talked about military physician by the name of Iwasa Ken: in the unit he “specialized” on the dissection of living people, slaying in the course of such vivisection of about 20 people. Zhivoderskie about his experiences, noted Morimura, Ken recalled with obvious pleasure:
– When I joined the squad, I still had something human: I was afraid, feel insecure… But everything goes very fast: two to three times revealed living people – and then work quietly and cease to feel anything.
Lawyer Tsuchiya Koken after the war helped the relatives of “experimental” to receive compensation from the Japanese government, told Morimura:
– The prison held about 3,000 people. A few dozen of them were Russian. Tokyo Central court acknowledged that the Japanese army in China destroyed by infection by bacteria of at least 10 thousand people. I think, in fact, the figure is even more…
From tests and experiments workers of “unit 731” came to the practical application of BO in the war against China and diversionary attacks against the Soviet Union. So, in 1940, speakspace under the leadership of Ishii traveled to Central China, where there was fighting there, the participants dropped from the plane to the area of Nimba fleas infected with the plague. Another bacteriological attack was made in 1941 near the city of Changde. And NISS of Toshihide, one of the members of the squad, later described as a group of two dozen people infected with the bacteria plague the water of the river Halha during the fighting at Khalkhin-Gol (1939).
The transformation of evil
As soon as in August 1945, three Soviet fronts began to smash the Kwantung army, the personnel of the detachment rushed to “cover their tracks” and to carry out a hasty evacuation. August 11, Ishii ordered: jailed “test” to destroy the buildings in the complex to blow up personnel to withdraw to the South. All prisoners slew the wild and scary way, vbrasyvaya in their camera glass container with hydrocyanic acid. After the painful death of prisoners, their bodies dragged into a large pit, doused with gasoline and burned.
From may 1946 to November 1948, Tokyo hosted the trial of Japanese war criminals, where the accused were 29 representatives of the highest leadership of the country. However, the developers BO received immunity from prosecution. The fact that after the surrender of Japan Shiro Ishii and Kitano Masaji (second commander of “unit 731”), together with many of his colleagues fell into American captivity. Ishii was able to negotiate with the Americans and to negotiate with them immunity in exchange for providing them with extensive data on experiments on humans. In the end, at the request of General Douglas MacArthur, commander of allied occupation forces in Japan, such immunity has been provided by myself Ishii and his accomplices.
Thus, Ishii managed to avoid responsibility for his crimes. Later, the information that he settled in the U.S. as a consultant at the BO. And I Masaji returned to Japan, established an international pharmaceutical company Green Cross, along with another war criminal Raiti Naito Akira.
In response, the Soviet authorities decided to organize its process. 25-30 December 1949 in Khabarovsk, the military Tribunal of the Primorye military district, took place the trial of 12 former Japanese military personnel accused of the development and application of BO. They were all sentenced to various terms of imprisonment. But even those who received long sentences served in prison for only 7 years.
Atrocities of “unit 731” you can put on a par with crimes committed by the Nazis in Auschwitz, Buchenwald and Majdanek. This, however, did not prevent some of his former employees to find employment in the United States. Developments Ishii and his colleagues has been integrated in the military-biological research in Fort Detrik – chief of the laboratory of the U.S. army. And here it should be noted that today the name “Fort Detrick” is regularly mentioned by the experts during the discussion of the problems associated with the origin of the virus Covid-19. As it is impossible not to recall the existence of the Pentagon’s biological laboratories in the territory of the former Soviet States (including Ukraine), whose activity raises many disturbing questions that the American authorities did not hurry to answer.