At the end of February in his hometown of Voronezh returned Peter Nikulin, who spent labor in slavery in Dagestan 16 years. It is not kept in chains, and hardly used any physical force, but took the documents and did not pay the money. On this principle the modern slave forced to work of their “subordinates”. According to sources “OR” experts, the slave trade remains a profitable business, eliminate which is extremely difficult. Unscrupulous law enforcement officers, contrary to misconception, does not always cover such a business more often simply are afraid to contact him.
A resident of Voronezh, Peter Nikulin held in labor slavery in Dagestan 16 years. To your mother the man was able to return just a few days ago. In 1999 Nikulin offered to go to work for three months. This period of time is not limited to: the men took the documents and, of course, paid nothing. Money on the way back was not. For 16 years Peter M. working in brick factories in Makhachkala, herded cattle, worked on agricultural land. Instead of paying a pack of cigarettes, a Cup of mash in the evenings, sometimes 50-100 rubles. Now Peter M. wishes she had money, would gradually save up for a return ticket. A year ago the former “owners” Nikulin got rid of him – 58-year-old man was “incompetent”. Before he was rescued by the activists of the movement “Alternative” he’s living in Makhachkala, where it froze both feet.
Petr Nikulin – not the record-holder on duration of employment slavery. 45-summer Sergey Khlevny got to his “master” at the age of 25 and held in Dagestan bondage 18 years. Over the years he has made more than 20 attempts to escape, but it will still be returned to the owners. The man was several times sold and transferred. So, one of the owners for five months chained Sergei Yurevich chains in the barn. His release was only two years ago.
Recruiters slaves, often working at stations, you see potential victims from afar, says “NO” coordinator of the movement “Alternative” Alexey Nikitin directly concerned with the liberation of the slaves. Into slavery, usually fall people, newcomers, marginal species, does not know the city, more often caught in a difficult situation, for instance, lost documents or robbed.
Man offer a temporary but well paid job, taken to a brick factory or plantation, select documents. Money on the way back, of course not. Or offer help, buy something at the local diner, and then the person wakes up at the same brick factory. “Choose people who can easily be controlled, put in a dependent position, says an activist. – Physically strong the man at the brickyard certainly not to lure. Although a couple of years ago such a case was: a man brought to such an enterprise, but to work to make failed. Have not calculated the forces”. As says the source, “NOR” labor trafficking “characterized by corruption among some law enforcement officials”. “Often it is either local police or the local police: if it gets to this slave, it immediately returns to the factory,” says Mr. Nikitin.
Accurate statistics of how many people in Russia is slavery, no. According to the international human rights organization Walk Free Foundation, in our country can live in captivity from 500 thousand to 1 million persons (this figure includes prostituierten women, and those engaged in “mafia beggars”). As said Alexey Nikitin, one in Dagestan can be a few hundred slaves: “There is about 500-600 brick factories, each running between 15 and 25. Almost all people work there illegally and 10-15 people – against their will. I’m not talking about private farms, which account not be”.
But officially recognizes only those cases that were prosecuted. As told “NO” in a press-service of the MIA of Russia in 2014, it was revealed 25 crimes under article “human Trafficking”, revealed – 33 (this figure includes crimes identified in previous years). Last year, similar crimes were detected 37 and revealed 26. This is much less than in the same period in 2012 and 2013: then were recorded 70 and 66 of the crimes respectively. At the same time, according to the article “Use of slave labour” in 2014, it was revealed 7 of the crimes solved 10. Last year, there were 4 crimes solved 7. Persons suspected of using slaves, it was revealed on 21 and 9, respectively.
Activists involved in rescuing the labour of slaves, is actively cooperating with law enforcement. The difficulty is that to prove a crime is problematic. In the case of inspections of “home” just repudiate its employees, and the employees are so intimidated and harassed that confirm the voluntary nature of their work. Sometimes the most terrible, that threatens to slaveholders – the penalty for non-discharge of mercenaries.
The slaveholding regions considered South of Dagestan and the entire North Caucasus, Stavropol region. And Rostov-on-don is considered a kind of recruitment center free laborers in the agricultural business. In larger cities wielded the so-called “mafia beggars”, which turns out to be virtually uncontrollable – at the begging can be punished only by a fine, and the organizers are difficult to find. “We are lobbying for the introduction of new criminal provisions – articles for organization of begging, – says Alexey Nikitin. – Otherwise, the responsibility to attract, as a rule, cannot”.
With slave labor and the “beggar mafia” can’t cope, because there is no political install, says “NO” to the Chairman of the Committee “Civil assistance” Svetlana Gannushkina. Before, according to her, the law enforcement authorities to this phenomenon have sought to make: “subject to criminal proceedings, we have represented the interests of victims. But very quickly the interest in such things has gone. We tried to develop this theme, but in vain. Chattel slavery is much more profitable to the unscrupulous entrepreneur, and many use it”. Interviewee “NO” stated that while employers are not going to enforce the laws, including the registration of employees, the situation will not change.
On another type of slavery – sexual – in Russia generally prefer to close my eyes. “I admit that this area is controlled, and quite firmly said “NO” to the Director of the Center for assistance to victims of sexual violence “Sisters” Maria Mokhova. – But the question is, who exactly, remains open”. Trafficking for purposes of sexual exploitation, says our interlocutor, often disguised as free prostitution. But if you dig deeper, you find that girls have no papers, they cannot go out of business, to independently dispose of their income. Ms. moss also drew attention to another area, existing mostly in the shadows. In the case of domestic staff, which is nowhere and no one is recorded: “Working the way people are, no one can guarantee that they will not be forced to provide sexual services.”