“The shadow on the picture of the world”
70 years ago, on 5 March 1946, Winston Churchill spoke at Westminster College in Fulton American historic speech about the iron curtain that divided Europe, and the threat of tyranny to the entire civilized world
It was Fulton speech of Churchill is often called the starting point of the Cold war, but in March 1946 the war is gradually gaining momentum.
Reached a peak of confrontation between the USSR and the Anglo-amerikancami in Iran. There were fights Pro-Moscow Communists to Pro-Western monarchists in Greece. A new round of civil war between the Communists and the Guomindang government began in China. Started preparations for the establishment of Marxist regimes in North Korea and East Germany and the capitalist Pro-Western regimes in South Korea and West Germany.
In the former “thousand year Reich” lasted the Nuremberg trial, where the prosecutors of the Nazi leaders were Americans, and Brits, and Russians, but it was clear that fear of each other at yesterday’s allies are already stronger than the fear of a resurgent Germany turned into ruins.
In fact, in Fulton Churchill with his characteristic expressiveness and beauty of words said aloud what I knew and told myself in those days, Western military and political elite.
In many respects the speech was bitter for the former Prime Minister. “The United States is currently at the top of world power. Today is a solemn moment for American democracy because, together with his superiority in strength, she has also taken on the enormous responsibility before the future”, — it is unlikely that this phrase has been a faithful knight of the British Empire, which for several centuries was the most powerful nation on the planet. But the Empire went rapidly and irreversibly, realist Churchill understood it well. A significant part of it was Fulton speech devoted to the need for a strong Union between the United States and the peoples of the British Commonwealth — in the name of peace and security.Conference on the establishment of the United Nations in San Francisco in 1945
Churchill calls two threats to mankind, war and tyranny. To minimize the threat of war Churchill big role to the United Nations, which was to become “a true Temple of Peace, where you can battle hang the shields of many countries, not just the cutting world of the tower of Babel”. So the UN does not repeat the inglorious fate of the League of Nations, it was necessary to give their own armed forces.
“Here, I have a and practical proposal for action. The courts cannot function without sheriffs and constables. The United Nations should immediately begin to equip international military forces. In this case we can only proceed gradually, but must start now. I propose that all States were invited to provide the world Organization of certain number of air squadrons. These squadrons would be produced in their own countries, but had to be moved in rotation from one country to another. The pilots wore uniforms of their countries, but with different insignia. From them it would be impossible to require participation in military operations against their own country, but in all other respects they would be head of the world Organization. To start creating such a force would be at a modest level and increase them as you grow confidence. I wanted to have it done after the First world war, and truly believe that this can be done now.”
Speaking about the second problem — the tyranny — Churchill made his historic speech.
The old British lion was behind the dramatic experience of the 1930-ies, when Europe blithely put up with the rise of the Nazi military power, were appeasing Hitler, giving him without a fight the whole country. Churchill at the time felt like the ancient Cassandra: he was screaming about the danger, but nobody believed in the horrific ideas of Nazism. Believe him only when the German tanks rushed to Brussels and Paris, and German bombers to London. Now Churchill was determined to prevent the recurrence of the 1930s and prevent a new round of deadly games in the giveaway.
I must say that Churchill did not consider the Soviet Union and Stalin (unlike the Third Reich and Hitler) absolute, beyond evil. But he saw and what was impossible not to see the former comrades in arms violate the freedom and dignity of man in the vast spaces and want this twilight zone to expand.
“Picture of the world, so recently lit up by the victory of the allies, the shadow fell. Nobody knows what Soviet Russia and its Communist international organization intend to do in the near future and what are the limits, if any, and veroordeelde their expansionist tendencies. I deeply admire and honor the valiant Russian people and for my wartime comrade Marshal Stalin. In England — I have no doubt that here, too, — had a deep sympathy and goodwill to all peoples of Russia and determination to overcome numerous differences and disruptions in the name of lasting friendship. We understand that Russia must ensure the security of its Western borders against the possible renewal of German aggression. We are glad to see its in its rightful place among leading world powers. We welcome her flag upon the seas. And above all we welcome constant, frequent and growing ties between the Russian and our peoples on both sides of the Atlantic. However, I consider it my duty to present you some facts — I’m sure you wish I have given you the facts as they are presented to me — about the present position in Europe.”Winston Churchill in Fulton on 5 March 1946
And the facts were grim. In it was Fulton speech of Churchill first heard the phrase “iron curtain”.
“From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste on the Adriatic to the continent down the iron curtain. On the other side of the curtain — all the capitals of the ancient States of Central and Eastern Europe: Warsaw, Berlin, Prague, Vienna, Budapest, Belgrade, Bucharest, Sofia. All these famous cities and the populations in their districts were in the range of what I call the Soviet sphere. All of them in one form or another are subject not only to Soviet influence but also a significant and increasing control of Moscow. Only Athens with their immortal fame can freely determine their own future in elections with the participation of British, American and French observers. The Polish government, under the domination of the Russians, encouraged by a huge and unfair attacks on Germany, leading to mass expulsions of millions of Germans in the unfortunate and unprecedented scale. The Communist party, which were very small in all these Eastern European States, have achieved extraordinary power, far beyond their numbers, and everywhere seek to establish totalitarian control. Almost all of these countries governments are controlled by the police, and to this day, with the exception of Czechoslovakia, there is no real democracy. Turkey and Persia are deeply concerned and anxious about the claims that they imposed, and the pressure to which they are subjected by the government of Moscow. In Berlin the Russians are attempting to create quasicorporations party in their zone of occupied Germany by providing special privileges to groups of left-wing German leaders.”
Experienced British politician reminded that to prevent the Second world war, and in 1933, and even in 1935. But Churchill did not think that in 1946 the West was the possibility for any rapid pre-emptive military operations. The former Prime Minister spoke of the need of demonstratsii military-political unity of democratic countries.
“I don’t believe that Russia wants war. What she wants is the fruits of war and the unlimited spread their power and doctrines. But what we should consider here today while there is still time, it’s about preventing wars forever and creating the conditions for freedom and democracy as soon as possible in all countries. Our difficulties and dangers will not disappear if we close our eyes or just we will wait what will happen or will be a policy of appeasement. We need to settle, and the more time it takes, the harder it goes, and the more formidable will be in front of us at risk. From what I have observed in the behavior of our Russian friends and allies during the war, I carried the belief that they worship nothing as the force, and to anything hold no less respect than for military weakness.”
The history of the subsequent decades proved the rightness of Churchill. The unity of the free world, showing political will and military power for a long time hindered Communist expansion — until then, until the Eastern bloc collapsed, unable to withstand the arms race, under the weight of accumulated social and economic problems.
In it was Fulton speech too much tied to the international situation of the mid-1940s. But the iron logic and a vigorous belief in his innocence, ideals and the victory of world leaders can learn from sir Winston Churchill in 2016-m to year when on “picture of the world” again the shadow fell.